Book cover image for: Introduction to the Properties of Fluids and Solids

An Introduction to the Properties of Fluids and Solids

Robert Heideman, Ayodeji A. Jeje, and Farhang Mohtadi

$26.95 CAD / $26.95 USD (S)

440 pages, formulae

6 x 9 inches

978-0-91981-306-9 (Paperback)

October 1984

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About the Book

Written especially for first-year university students studying engineering, this text provides a sound first treatment of many properties of fluids and solids of interest across disciplines.

An Introduction to the Properties of Fluids and Solids deals with some basic thermodynamic and transport properties of fluids and solids that are of interest in engineering applications

Various notions about the basic structure of matter, fundamental concepts of our physical world and the conditions of equilibrium between different phases of matter are discussed in the first part of the book. The macroscopic properties of fluids and solids are explained in the latter part

Written for first-year university students in engineering, simple derivations and clear explanations have been preferred to detailed theoretical treatment. Illustrative problems, spaced throughout the text, demonstrate the application of various concepts and facilitate a better understanding of the theory.

An Introduction to the Properties of Fluids and Solids provides a sound first treatment of many properties of fluids and solids of interest in all the engineering disciplines.

About the Authors

Robert A. Heidemann is associated with the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Calgary.

Ayodeji A. Jeje is associated with the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Calgary.

Farhang Mohtadi is associated with the Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Calgary.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

1.1 The States of Matter
1.2 Atoms and Molecules
1.3 The Properties of Matter

2. Basic Concepts and Principles

2.1 Scales of Magnitude in Space and Time
2.2. Fundamental and Derived outcomes
2.3 The Conservation Principles
2.4 The Concepts of Temperature
2.5 Interconvertibility of Energy

3. Notations about the Nature of Matter

3.1 Early Notations about the Structure of Matter
3.1.1 Dalton’s Postulates
3.1.2 Avogadro’s Hypothesis

3.2 Contemporary Picture of the Atom
3.2.1 The Nucleus
3.2.2 The Electron
3.2.2 TheElementary Particles
3.3 Proof of the Particulate Nature of Matter
3.3.1 Brownian Motion
3.3.2 Field Emission Microscopy
3.3.3 Radioactivity

3.4 The Classification of Elements
3.4.1 The Periodic Table
3.4.2 Chemical Reactivity
3.5 The Size of Atoms and Molecules

3.5 The Nature of Bonds Between Atoms and Molecules
3.7 Potential Energy Functions
3.8 Structure of Solids
3.8.1 Crystals and non-Crystals
3.8.2 Bravais Lattices
3.8.3 Atomic Densities and Dimensions
3.9 The States of Matter and Their Transformations

Equilibrium Between Phases of Matter

4.1 States of Equilibrium
4.2 Phases and Composition
4.3 The Phase Rule
4.3.1 The Number of Phases, P
4.3.2 The Number of Independent Components, C
4.3.3 The Degrees of Freedom, F
4.3.4 Phase Rule Examples

4.4 Phase Equilibria in Single Component Systems
4.4.1 Single Phase Systems
4.4.2 Two Phase Systems
4.4.3 Three Phase Systems
4.4.4 Systems with more than Three Phases
4.4.5 The Pressure–Temperature Diagram for a Pure Substance
4.4.6 The Pressure–Volume Diagram for a Pure Substance
4.4.7 The Critical Point
4.4.8 The Lever Rule
4.4.9 The P–V–T Surface

4.5 Systems with Two Independent Components
4.5.1 Binary Phase Diagrams
4.6 Vapor–Liquid Systems
4.6.1 Two Completely Miscible Liquids
4.6.2 Two Completely Miscible Liquids with Azeotropic Point
4.6.3 Two Partially Miscible Liquids

4.7 Liquid–Solid Systems
4.7.1 Completely Miscible Solids
4.7.2 Immiscible Solids
4.7.3 Partially Miscible Solids
4.7.4 Invariant Reactions
4.7.5 Compound Phases

4.8 Phase Diagrams for Some Systems of Special Engineering Interest
4.8.1 The Iron–Carbon System
4.8.2 Steeles and Cast–Irons
4.8.3 Non–Equilibrium Steeles
4.8.4 Copper–Zinc Mixtures
4.8.5 Methan–n–Heptane Mixtures

5. Ideal Gasses

5.1 P–V–T Behavior of the Ideal Gas
5.2 The Equation of the State of an Ideal Gas
5.2.1 The Universal Gas Constant
5.3 Ideal Gas Mixtures
5.4 Elementary Kinetic Theory of Gasses
5.5 Deductions from the Kinetic Theory
5.5.1 Boyle’s Law
5.5.2 Avogadro’s Law
5.5.3 Temperature and Motion of Molecules
5.5.4 Distribution of Molecular Velocities in Gasses
5.5.5 The Relationship between the Gas Constant and Heat Capacities
5.5.6 Mean Free Path and Collision of Molecules

5.6 Transport Properties of Gasses
5.6.1 Transfer of Momentum; Viscosity
5.6.2 Conduction of Heat; Thermal Conductivity

5.6.3 Molecular Diffusion; Diffusivity

6. Real Gasses

6.1 Deviation from Ideal Gas Behavior
6.2 P–V–T Behavior of Real Gases
6.3 The van der Walls Equation of State
6.4 Applicability of the van der Waals Equation
6.5 The van der Waals Equation and the Critical Point
6.6. Other Equations of State
6.7 Compressibility Factor and Corresponding States
6.8 Real Gas Mixtures
6.8.1 The Pseudocritical Point Method
6.8.2 Application of Dalton’s and Amagat’s Laws

6.8.3 Mixing Rules Method

7. Liquids

7.1 The Liquid State
7.1.1 Models of the Liquid State
7.1.2 The Glassy State and Liquid Crystals

7.2 Volumetric Behaviour of Liquids
7.2.1 Thermal Expransion of Liquids
7.2.2 Compressibility; Tait’s Equation
7.2.3 The van der Waals Equation
7.2.4 The Corresponding States

7.3 Energy Effects in Liquids
7.3.1 Heat Capacity
7.3.2 Latent Heat of Vaporization
7.3.3 The Clausis&Clapeyron Equation
7.3.4 Correlating Vapor Pressure Data
7.3.5 Equilibrium Pressure Above Liquid Mixtures

7.4 Cohesion and Surface Tension
7.4.1 Surface Tension; Pressure Inside Drops and Bubbles
7.4.2 The Contact Angle
7.4.3 Capillary Rise
7.4.4 Interfacial Tension
7.4.5 Variations in Surface Tension

7.5 Colligative Properties of Liquid Solutions
7.5.1 Elevation of Boiling Point
7.5.2 Depression of Freezing Point
7.5.3 Osmotic Pressure

7.6 Transport Properties of Liquids
7.6.1 Viscosity of Liquids
7.6.2 Thermal Conductivity of Liquids
7.6.3 Molecular Diffusion in Liquids

8. The Motion of Fluids

8.1 The Basic Concepts
8.1.1 Stress and Strain in Fluids
8.1.2 Ideal Fluids
8.1.3 Newtonian Fluids
8.1.4 The Effects of Temperature and Pressure on Viscosity
8.1.5 Non–Newtonian Fluids
8.1.6 The Measurement of Viscosity

8.2 Potential Flow
8.2.1 Bernoulli’s Equation
8.3 Flow of Viscous Fluids
8.3.1 The Boundary Layer
8.4 Laminar Flow in Pipes; The Hagen–Poiseuille Equation
8.4.1 Velocity Distribution in a Pipe
8.4.2 Power Consumption
8.4.3 Working Equations for Laminar Flow

8.5 Turbulent Flow in Piper
8.5.1 The Friction Factor
8.5.2 Power Consumption
8.5.3 Pressure Drop in Fittings, Bends and Valves

8.6 Drag on Submerged Bodies
8.6.1 Flow on a Flat Plate
8.6.2 Flow on a Curved Surface
8.6.3 Drag on a Two–dimensional Surface

9. The Structure and Transport of Properties of Solids

9.1 Macrostructure of Solids
9.1.1 Crystalline Solutions
9.1.2 Amorphous Solids
9.1.3 Polymeric Solids

9.2 Thermal Properties in Heat Conduction
9.1.1 Heat Capacity
9.1.2 Thermal Expansion
9.2.3 Thermal Conductivity
9.2.4 The Rate of Heat Conduction

9.3 Diffusion in Solids
9.3.1 Mechanisms of Diffusion in Solids
9.3.2 The Phenomenological Theory of Diffusion
9.3.3 Diffusion of Neutrons
9.3.4 Diffusion of Porous and Non–porous Solids
9.3.5 Solid Diffusivity Data

9.4 The Transport of Electrical Charge in Solids
9.4.1 Basic Conception and Terminologies
9.4.2 Electric Conduction in Metals
9.4.3 Superconductivity
9.4.4 Semiconductors

10. Stress–Strain Relationships for Solids

10.1 Stress and Strain in Solids
10.1.1 Normal and Shear Stresses
10.1.2 Normal and Shear Strains
10.2.3 Typical Stress–Strain Behaviors

10.2 Elastic Deformation of Solids
10.2.1 Young Modulus for Linear Deformation
10.2.2 Poisson’s Ratio
10.2.3 The Bulk Modulus for Volume Change
10.2.4 Modulus of Rigidity for Shear Deformation
10.2.5 Effect of Anisotropy on Elasticity
10.2.6 Effects of Temperature on Elasticity

10.3 Plastic Deformation
10.3.1 Maximum Strength of Perfect Crystals
10.3.2 Dislocations and Slip

10.4 Linear Visco–Elastic Models
10.4.1 The Maxwell Models
10.4.2 The Temperature Effects on Visco–Elastic Models

10.5 Creep
10.5.1 Correlating Minimum Creep Rate
10.6 Brittle Failure
10.6.1 Effect of Cracks on Strength
10.6.2 Brittle–Ductile Transition

Appendix 1 – Constants and Units
Appendix B – Properties of Elements and Pure Substances
Appendix C – Volumetric Properties
Subject Index